WHY Kemiri Sunan FOR Biodiesel?
Biodiesel as a biofuel that can substitute diesel fuel, will thrive if and only if the production of biodiesel can be economically competitive with diesel oil. One important factor that determines the competitiveness is the productivity of the land and the plant to produce biodiesel continuously. In addition to the situation, who is prone to cope with the rising fuel prices, will be motivated to make biofuels more competitive, since the supporting factors are available such as the abundance of available resources, especially land, climate, labor and technology.
Another cosideration that should be taken into is that the plant should also be able to function as conservation plant and does not compete with food supply. This is because almost all regions in Indonesia have a critical need of conservation land, especially in areas with high population density such as in Java. The other advantages of biodiesel production is that there are many kinds of plant could brcome energy sources in Indonesia(Table 1), which is commonly in the form of trees that can serve conservation, and not a producer of foodstuffs, as well as having a high production potential.
KEMIRI SUNAN is better alternative
Kemiri Sunan is dicotyle plant that can reach height of more than 10 m and trunk diameter of 1 m. This plant is included in Family of Euphorbiaceae plants, it can grow in tropical to subtropical regions at altitudes of less than 600 m above sea level. It has wide leaf about 6-10 cm. Kemiri lateral rooting areas can reach twice the diameter of the editorial, which can reach more than 5 m. Distance between plant is 8m x 8m to make branches grow freely. The planting system through triangle or rectangle system accomodate 150 trees per ha. Closer distance can make trees grow as apole but brances will be overlapping, while sunrise is still be able to penetrate among the canopy, and the alley can be utilized to plant some perennial crops such as peanuts or corn to contribute income to the surrounding residents or the alley can also be utilzed as a nursery to young trees or seed cultivation.
Kemiri Sunan is usually has branches of 3 pieces or more in each phase of branching (triple branches system), usually tree times yearly. Fruiting commonly happens at the end of each branch, so the more the branching levels and numbers, the more the production will be.. Therefore, the production assumptions is suggested to start after year 3 of planting, in order to give the trees enough time to be strong to have enough branhes levels and number of branches to start producing many fruits or high production.
When the plants derived from seeds, in the 3rd year has begun to bloom, although the number of fruit is still very limited, while the plants derived fromvegetative propagation will have already begun in year two, and started a lot more in year 3. Kemiri Sunan propagation occurs mainly through cross-pollination, although some are pollinated itself. To ensure production of good quality planting materials in accordance with the selected parent trees, the provision of planting materials can be done through vegetative propagation. Another path is through the construction of isolated stem gardens to produce a composite seed (intervarietas). Each fruit of Kemiri Sunan contains three seeds. Inside the seed there is a kernel that has a weight of about (70%) of seed weight. According to the observations on average every 1 kg of seeds consists of 120 seeds.
Biodiesel Production Process
Kernels that have been produced can be directly extracted with expeller machine to produce crude oil. According to the results of long and continous experiments conducted by BALITTRI, the yield of crude oil that can be extracted to achieve the 59% highest and lowest 48%. Byproducts of this process is Kemiri Sunan pecan cake that can be used as organic fertilizer, briquettes or earlier can produce methane gas (biogas).
To generate biodiesel, crude oil can further be processed through a filtration process and transesterification. The yield of biodiesel in the process reaching 88-91% of crude oil and the rest is glycerol, a material that can be used in the chemical industry. Broadly speaking there are three-transesterification processes that can be taken to make biodiesel from crude oil that is:
- Transesterification process with the removal of free fatty acids (FFA) in physics.
- Transesterification process with the removal of FFA through the saponification reaction.
- Esterification and transesterification.
Results and discussion.
Crude Oil and Biodiesel Production
With the screw expeller machine .Kemi\ri Sunan Crude Oil can be extracted from the kernel. The crude oil can further be processed through a transesterification process .. In the process it also produced glycerol as a byproduct. Glycerol is an industrial raw material which can be further processed into glycerine, where the value is much higher. This production process can be designed as a cycle so that it becomes a clean industry with the concept (zero waste). Kemiri Sunan Crude Oil production potential is also very high, because besides kernel high productivity, it’s oil content is also high. In addition to the said matters, the results of laboratory analysis showed that the .quality of Kemiri Sunan Crude Ouil is also eligible to be processed into biodiesel through the effective and efficient production process.The quality of biodiesel derived from transesterification process .has also already met the qualification of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI), only need to observe more about the decline in quality due to delay in the use of a minimum of six months. Glycero is produced as a by product, it weighs about 12% of crude oil that needs further analysis in it’s quality
CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
Conclusion of Simulation of biomass production
Kemiri .Sunan as crude oil feedstock and biodiesel production showed a very high potential productivity so as to provide an optimistic expectation. Picture of the potential is still based on the performance of the exsisting plants production that have not been touched by good maintenance practices, which means the application of innovated manuring technologies. Further research in plant breeding will be needed to improve .plant quality in order to obtain superior variety and applied technology to support the utilization of the expected superior genetic potential of Kemiri Sunan..
Hence, the content of crude oil and biodiesel of Kemiri .Sunan is very high (crude oil yield of more than 50% of the kernel and 88% biodiesel from crude oil), far exceeding the average productivity of other biodiesel producing plants. The quality of biodiesel produced has also met the requirements of SNI. These imply why Kemiri Sunan is a better alternative compared to other biodiesel plant sources..
Research program priorities for the Kemiri Sunan is
- Evaluation and selection in situ germplasm Kemiri Sunan to gain accessions of selected plants with high productivity and quality of biodiesel that meets the requirements of SNI/Indonesia National Standard (2009-2010), to further research undertaken towards the release of improved varieties.
- Vegetative propagation system to produce plants with strong roots and characters and economical production (2009-2010).
- Productive crop production system, environmentally friendly and efficient (2010).
Priority Development Program
- Variety registry of Kemiri Sunan to Center For Plant Variety Protection, MOA, dated May 25, 2009, , to avoid claims of various parties since these plants have a very high potential for producing biodiesel. and the registered name of this plant is legally said Kemiri Sunan as stated in it’s Local Variety Sertificate. To save the existinglocal varieties Balittri has selected and collected accessions of Kemiri Sunan and developed in situ plasma nutfah in BALITTRI through vegetative propagation of native plants.
- Development of Kemiri Sunman seed garden to produce the composite seeds can be implemented to accelerate the release of varieties.